drawings by Marguerita
In 1667 John Milton bestowed (some beleaguered students might say 'inflicted') his great masterpiece, Paradise Lost, upon the world. In 1674 the revised second edition was published, where he divided the original ten books into twelve and added the following introductory summaries or "Arguments" for each book at the request of confused early readers.
This first book proposes, first in brief, the whole subject: man's disobedience and the loss thereupon of Paradise wherein he was placed; then touches the prime cause of his fall, the serpent, or rather Satan in the serpent, who, revolting from God and drawing to his side many legions of angels, was by the command of God driven out of heaven with all his crew into the great deep. Which action past over, the poem hasts into the midst of things, presenting Satan with his angels now fallen into hell--described here, not in the center (for heaven and earth may be supposed as yet not made, certainly not yet accursed) but in a place of utter darkness, fitliest called chaos.
Here Satan with his angels lying on the burning Lake, thunder-struck and astonished, after a certain space recovers, as from confusion; calls up him who, next in order and dignity, lay by him; they confer of thir miserable fall. Satan awakens all his legions, who lay till then in the same manner confounded. They rise; their numbers, array of battle, their chief leaders named, according to the idols known afterwards in Canaan and the countries adjoining. To these Satan directs his speech, comforts them with hope yet of regaining heaven, but tells them lastly of a new world and new kind of creature to be created, according to an ancient prophesy or report in heaven; for that angels were long before this visible creation, was the opinion of many ancient fathers.
To find out the truth of this prophesy, and what to determine thereon, he refers to a full council; what his associates thence attempt. Pandemonium, the palace of Satan, rises, suddenly built out of the deep; the infernal peers there sit in counsil.